Peptides terminating in -Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala, -Lys-D-Ala-L-Ala and -Lys-D-Ala-D-Lactate were covalently coupled via an N-terminal aminohexanoic acid linker to a self-assembled monolayer of HS(CH2)15CO2H on a thin gold film. Binding of the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and chloroeremomycin to these surfaces was then measured using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor. Both antibiotics bound with micromolar affinity to the D-Ala-terminating surface and with millimolar affinity to the D-Lactate-terminating surface. Increasing density of these covalently attached peptides on the surface had no effect on the resultant affinities of either antibiotic for the surface. In contrast, when the lipid-anchored peptide N-alpha-docosanoyl-epsilon-acetyl-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala was inserted into a supported lipid monolayer, the affinity of the strongly dimerizing antibiotic chloroeremomycin for the surface showed a dependence on ligand density. This was not the case with the weakly dimerizing antibiotic vancomycin. The lipid monolayer surface, which is a more realistic model of the surface of a bacterium, was thus better suited for the study of the cooperative binding interactions that occur between dimeric glycopeptide antibiotics and surface-bound ligands.
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